It is her second nomination for the role of Angela Burr after being put up for an Emmy.
The former Norwich High School for Girls and Gresham’s School pupil is up against Chrissy Metz, Lena Headey, Mandy Moore and Thandie Newton in the category.
Her co-stars in the show Tom Hiddleston and Hugh Laurie have also been nominated with the drama collecting four nominations in total.
The 42-year-old is best known for playing DS Ellie Miller in the ITV drama Broadchurch, winning a host of awards for her portrayal.
Other British talent up for awards includes Charlotte Rampling, Riz Ahmed and Dev Patel.
The Golden Globes will be held on January 8 and will be hosted by Jimmy Fallon.